Tuesday, June 19, 2012

Do we have a hereditary Monarchy? Brush up your history.

Do we have a hereditary monarchy? Brush up your history.
1066-87         William the Conqueror - obtained throne by conquest.
1087-1100 William II (William Rufus)– third son of William the Conqueror.   Robert (first son) was   made Duke of Normandy. Richard (second son died).   William II died, shot whilst hunting, no children.
1100 – 35 Henry I, fourth son of William the Conqueror. Robert (first son) tried to claim the throne but was defeated in battle and imprisoned for life by Henry.  Henry’s son William drowned in 1120.
1135 – 54 Stephen – Nephew of Henry I through his mother Adela who was Henry I sister.   Henry I had a daughter, Matilda who should have succeeded, but Stephen seized the throne.   Stephen had two sons, Eustace and William but Eustace died before Stephen.   William agreed that Henry II would succeed Stephen.   Henry II, son of Matilda seized the throne.
1154 – 89 Henry II – Son of Matilda and grandson of Henry I.   Henry II had five sons.  William, 1st son died age 3.  Henry, 2nd son died of dysentery fighting his father and brothers.
1189 – 99 Richard I – Third son of Henry II.   Geoffrey, 4th son of Henry II died in 1186.  Richard I died, no children.   Eleanor and Joan, sisters of Richard and older than John should have succeeded or Eleanor, daughter of Geoffrey should have succeeded.  Arthur son of Geoffrey should also have succeeded even though he was born after Geoffrey’s death.
1199 – 1216 John – Fifth son of Henry II.
1216 – 72 Henry III – son of John
1272 – 1307 Edward I – Eldest son of Henry III
1307 – 27 Edward II – Eldest son of Edward I.   Edward II abdicated, was murdered and followed by:
1327 – 77 Edward III – Eldest son of Edward II. Edward III had four sons that survived to manhood.   The eldest was Edward, the Black Prince.   He died in 1376.   His eldest son Edward of Angouleme died in 1372.
1377 – 99 Richard II – Grandson of Edward III.      Richard II was the second son of  Edward, the Black Prince.   Richard II was forced to abdicate and was then starved to death in 1400.   He was followed by:
1399 – 1413 Henry IV – Grandson of Edward III, son of John of Gaunt – third son of Edward III.
1413 – 1422 Henry V – Son of Henry IV.   Died of dysentery.
1422 – 1461 Henry VI – Son of Henry V.   Imprisoned by Edward IV.
1461 – 1470 Edward IV – Great, Great, Great, Grandson of Edward III through Edward III’s second son Lionel, Duke of Clarence.   Fled into exile after the Earl of Warwick put Henry VI back on the throne.
1470 – 1471 Henry VI – Murdered in the Tower of London after Edward IV had defeated the Earl of Warwick in battle.
1471 – 1483 Edward IV – Fell ill and died in 1483.   His two sons Edward V and Richard were captured by Richard III before Edward V (age 12) had his coronation.   The two boys disappeared!   Bones found in the Tower of London were moved to Westminster Abbey by Charles II in 1674.
1483 – 1485 Richard III – brother of Edward IV.   Richard killed in a fight with Henry Tudor at the battle of Bosworth.   Richard’s son Edward died age 10 in 1484.
1485 – 1509 Henry VII – Grandson of Henry V.   Margaret, daughter of Henry VII was older than Henry VIII and married James IV of Scotland.
1509 – 1547 Henry VIII – Second son of Henry VII.   Arthur, first son of Henry VII died of tubercolosis in 1502.
1547 – 1553 Edward VI – only son of Henry VIII. Died.   Left the throne to Lady Jane Grey, Great Grand Daughter of Henry VII.
1553 Lady Jane Grey On the throne from 10-19 July.   Mary, daughter of Henry VIII formed an army and declared herself Queen.   Lady Jane Grey was executed six months later.
1553 – 1558 Mary, eldest daughter of Henry VIII. Died, no children.
1558 – 1603 Elizabeth I, second daughter of Henry VIII.   Died, no children.
1603 – 1625 James I, Great, great grandson of Henry VII.   Elizabeth was the eldest child of James I.   She married the King of Bohemia.
1625 – 1649 Charles I, son of James I. Executed for treason.
1649 – 1660 A Republic.
1660 – 1685 Charles II, eldest son of Charles I, no legitimate children.
1685 – 1688 James II, second son of Charles I.   Fled the country when William of Orange landed in England with an army of 10,000.   James II had a son James, the Old Pretender who also had a son Charles, the Young Pretender.
1689 – 1694 William III & Mary II. Mary was the eldest child of James II and granddaughter of Charles I.  She married William  - grandson of Charles I through his daughter Mary.  William insisted on sharing the monarchy.   Mary II died in 1694.
1694 – 1702 William III.   William and Mary died with no children.
1702 – 1714 Anne, second daughter of James II.   William, Duke of Gloucester, her only surviving son died in 1700.
1714 – 1727 George I, Great grandson of James I through Elizabeth, eldest daughter of James I.
1727 – 1760 George II, son of George I.   George II had eight children.   The eldest Frederick died in 1752.
1760 – 1820 George III, son of Frederick and grandson of George II.
1820 – 1830 George IV, eldest son of George III, no children.
1830 – 1837 William IV, third son of George III, no children.
1837 – 1901 Victoria, Granddaughter of George III. Daughter of Edward, Duke of Kent, fourth son of George III who had died.   Eldest child of Victoria was also named Victoria and married Kaiser Wilhelm I
1901 – 1910 Edward VII, eldest son of Victoria.
1910 – 1936 George V, eldest surviving son of Edward VII.   Albert, eldest son died in 1892.
1936 Edward VIII, eldest son of George V, abdicated.
1936 – 1952 George VI, second son of George V.
1952 - Elizabeth II, Eldest daughter of George VI.

Monday, June 11, 2012

When the House of Commons acted as a Court of Justice

In October 1656 James Naylor travelled to Bristol in company with seven Friends, including Martha Simmonds. The group travelled in procession through Glastonbury and Wells and entered Bristol on 24 October. Nayler went on horseback while his companions sang hosannas and cast garments before him in what many regarded as a blasphemous imitation of Christ's entry into Jerusalem on Palm Sunday. The Bristol Quakers immediately disassociated themselves from Nayler and his followers, who were arrested and charged under the Blasphemy Act of 1650. Although Nayler maintained it was a symbolic act, he was accused of impersonating Christ and claiming divine status. The case came to the attention of the Second Protectorate Parliament. Despite legal doubts regarding Parliament's authority to conduct a trial, Nayler was taken to London to answer to the House of Commons. Many MPs were suspicious of the religious freedom granted under the Protectorate and regarded Nayler's case as an example of the worst excesses of toleration. In December 1656, a majority declared him guilty of blasphemy and a fierce debate ensued regarding the extent of his punishment, with some MPs demanding that he should be stoned to death in accordance with the Old Testament penalty for blasphemy (Leviticus 24:16). Despite Cromwell's call for leniency, Nayler was sentenced to be whipped through the streets, exposed in the pillory, have his tongue bored through with a red-hot iron and to have the letter "B" for blasphemer branded on his forehead. He was then returned to Bristol and made to repeat his ride in reverse while facing the rear of his horse. Finally, he was taken back to London and committed to solitary confinement in Bridewell for an indefinite period. 

With some journalists being held in contempt of Parliament and demands for the House of Commons to punish them will they get the same justice as James Naylor?

For further information see http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/biog/nayler.htm 

Friday, June 1, 2012

I told you so - 47 years ago

The following article was published in the Chelsea Young Conservative’s magazine “Force” in Autumn 1965:

The Common Market
Economic Disadvantages
By John Strafford

Although entry into the E.E.C. would bring benefits to Britain (i.e. membership of a major world market that is rapidly expanding) the economic advantages would be outweighed by the following disadvantages:
1. Loss of national sovereignty.   Britain would not retain sufficient economic freedom to counter – for example – any excessive depression or deflation affecting a leading member of the community.
2. Commonwealth producers who rely on tariff-free entry into Britain and receive preferential treatment for their products would suffer.   Commonwealth trade is a two-way affair – no less than 40% of British trade is done with Commonwealth Countries.
3. The British system of support for agriculture could not survive entry into the market; the adoption of the European system would increase the average level of food prices.
4. Immigration of low paid workers under the free movement of labour scheme could lead to a reduction in the standard of living;
5. The inevitable liquidation of E.F.T.A. would mean a loss of trade.
Economically (and also politically) entry into the Common Market on the terms proposed would be national suicide.   France prevented Britain’s entry into the Common Market last time she applied for membership, so does the Common Market really want Britain?

It was all so predictable!